Choroideremia is a degenerative retinal diseases that cause degeneration of the choroid capillary blood vessels, the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells. Choroideremia is a degenerative disease, and inherited only in males only. Choroideremia generally begins with night blindness in children, and then developed into vision loss with age. The progress of the disease varies among individuals, even if they are from one family, both at the rate of change and the degree of vision loss.
At choroideremia, vision loss is caused by the degeneration of layers of cells that is very essential for sight. The very important layers for the vision are the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Choroid is a network of blood vessels that serves to supply oxygen and nutrients to the RPE and the photoreceptor cells. RPE serves as a support of photoreceptor cells, which convert light into electrical impulses that will be interpreted by the brain as images. Choroideremia is caused by the deletion of a type of protein called Rab escort protein 1 (REP). Diagnosis of choroideremia can be done by using a genetic blood test.
Blepharochalasis is a condition where there is inflammation of the eyelids, causing stretching and atrophy of the eyelid muscles. Blepharochalasis cause excessive folds of the eyelids. Blepharochalasis generally occurs in the upper eyelid, and may occur on one side or both eyes. Blepharochalasis due to the swelling that occurs repeatedly, each of which lasted for several days. Due to the swelling, the accumulation of fluid in the eyelid tissue. In the end, damage to the eyelid muscle resulting in drooping of the eyelid, when the muscles are no longer able to hold the eyelids.
Blepharochalasis can be treated with some action, namely: external levator aponeurosis tuck, blepharoplasty surgery, chantoplasty surgery and dermal fat grafts. Dermatochalasis sometimes misinterpreted as blepharochalasis, even though they are different. Dermatochalasis is a condition where there is excess skin on the eyelid. If blepharochalasis generally occurs at a young age, dermatochalasis usually occurs in older people.
Chorioretinitis, also known as choroid retinitis is an eye disease which caused by inflammation of the choroid and retina. The choroid is a thin vascular layer of the eye that contains connective tissue, and lies between the retina and the sclera. Choroid serves to provide oxygen and nourished the retina. When inflammation occurs only in the choroid only, then the condition is called Choroiditis.
Symptoms of chorioretinitis include: the floating black spots in vision, blurred vision, eye pain, sensitive, the light, and excessive tears. Chorioretinitis is often caused by an infection, such as toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus. Chorioretinitis usually attack in people with immunodeficiency, such as in people with HIV / AIDS, or the people who use immune-suppressing drugs such as those who had undergone organ transplantation. Treatment in patients with chorioretinitis can use a combination of corticosteroids and antibiotics.
Cytomegalovirus retinitis or CMV retinitis is an eye condition in which the inflammation caused by cytomegalovirus infection. CMV retinitis can cause blindness if not treated properly. In people with normal immune, cytomegalovirus still found, but it can be fought by the immune system. But for people with weakened immune, perhaps because of illness, after undergoing transplants or chemotherapy, cytomegalovirus can not be destroyed properly, so it can multiply faster, and attack organs such as the eyes and other organs. Cytomegalovirus retinitis can cause damage to the retina. Signs of cytomegalovirus retinitis include blurred vision, fear of the light, Redness and pain in the eyes.
Because CMV retinitis generally found in patients with weakened immune, then the people living with HIV are the most at risk for this disease. Treatment of CMV retinitis in patients includes providing antivirals such as ganciclovir and foscarnet, and by providing intraocular injections with drugs such as fomivirsen. The prevalence rate of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with HIV varies in every country. In Southeast Asia the prevalence of CMV retinitis reached 25% of the total people with HIV. In Africa the prevalence of CMV retinitis generally lower, less than 10%. Handling of CMV retinitis should be done carefully, and retinal examination should be performed routinely to prevent blindness.
Myopia is a condition of the eye in which the eyes are having trouble see at a distance, but normal in the near distance. This is because light entering the eye is not focused on the retina but in front of him. In general myopia classified into two types, namely: Axial Myopia and Refractive Myopia. Axial myopia due to the length of the axis of the eye increases. This causes the focal point of the light does not fall precisely on the retina. The second type is the refractive myopia. Refractive myopia is caused by refractive disorders of the eye. Refractive disorders can be caused by two things. The first is due to changes in the level of curvature on the surface of the eye refraction, generally on the cornea. The second is because the change in refractive index in the lens of the eye.
The increase in blood glucose levels can also lead to swelling of the crystalline lens due to accumulation of sorbitol in the lens. This swelling can sometimes cause temporary myopia. Myopia can also be classified according to the clinical appearance. The types of myopia by clinical appearance is divided into six, namely: Simple Myopia, degenerative Myopia, Nocturnal Myopia, pseudomyopia, Induced Myopia and Nearwork Induced Transient Myopia. Of the six types are, degenerative myopia are the most dangerous. Degenerative myopia is a kind of progressive myopia and gets worse over time. Degenerative myopia is also one of the main causes of visual impairment.
Until now, there has been no effective therapy to prevent myopia. Some things are usually done to prevent myopia is wearing reading glasses, eye drops, and also do outdoor activities more often. Some researchers have found an association between the frequency of outdoor activity with myopia. Generally myopia corrected by using glasses. Despite using glasses, the eyes become more tired as the eye requires a higher accommodation to focus. The prevalence rate of myopia worldwide reached 800 million – 1.2 billion, with the highest prevalence rates are in Asia, as much as 70-90%. Even in some places in Asia, Myopia is considered as a normality.
The prevalence rate of eye disease is becoming increasingly high. It is because of eye diseases commonly associated with vascular abnormalities caused by other diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Diabetes will cause the blood vessel walls become fragile, so easily broken. While atherosclerosis can lead to blockage of the blood vessels in the eye. One eye disease caused by blockage of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion is or CRVO. Central retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the major veins, which serves as a drainage channel for the retina. This blockage can cause damage to the retina and blindness, either due to ischemia (restriction of blood supply to the retina) and because of macular edema (swelling of the macula).
Central Retinal Vein patient Total Occlusion (CRVO) in 2010 reached 2.5 million worldwide. This amount is far less than the number of people with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO), which reached 13.9 million people. Currently there is almost no effective treatment for central retinal vein occlusion cure. While for branch retinal vein occlusion can be cured by the method of photo coagulation. Since there is no effective treatment for central retinal vein occlusion cure, what can be done in patients with CRVO is to stabilize vision by sealing leaky veins. Patients with CRVO also be given an injection of triamcinolone for resolving edema. To improve vision, patients can also be given an injection of bevacizumab.
Macula edema is a condition where there is accumulation of fluid and protein in the macula, the yellow part on the retina. Macula edema causes thickening and swelling of the retina. In general, macular edema caused by blockage of the central retinal vein, and blockage of the branch veins. Macular edema caused by blockage of the central retinal vein, there is no treatment that is pretty good. While macular edema due to branch retinal veins occlusion, can be treated with laser photocoagulation. Various studies have been done to cure macular edema, both CRVO and BRVO, one of them is using steroids. Injections of Lucentis was also performed for the treatment of macular edema.
Macular edema can be classified into two types. The first is Cystoic macular edema. Cystoic macular edema is an accumulation of fluid in the outer layer of the secondary, which interferes with retinal capillary permeability. The second type is diabetic macular edema. Diabetic macular edema is caused by a capillary blood vessel leakage in the macula. Diabetic macular edema can cause vision loss, both proliferative and non-proliferative. Diabetic macular edema occurs as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic macular edema is the cause of diabetic retinopathy, or retinal abnormalities due to complications of diabetes.
Article by Sandi Baker/Visual Innovation & Solutions
To better understand visual impairment we need to first look at what 20/20 vision is. This is a term that is used express the sharpness of ones vision in measurement at the distance of 20 feet. What this means is if you have 20/20 vision you can see with clarity at the distance of 20 feet. Take for instance those with 20/60 vision. They must be as close as 20 feet to see what a person with 20/20 vision can see at 60 feet.
However, this measurement of 20/20 only refers to the clarity of vision at distances. There are other factors that pertain to vision skills. They included:
Hyperopia (far sightedness)
Presbyopia (loss of focusing ability)
Myopia (near sightedness)
There are over 7 million people over the age of 6 who have difficulty seeing words and letters even when they are wearing corrective lenses.
In the United States 17% of those aged 45 or older have a visual impairment even with corrective lenses too.
Visually disabled people without corrected lenses figures have reached to over 100 million in the United States with 80 million suffering from potentially blinding eye diseases.Over 1 million people are legally blind.
Looking at the major causes of visual impairments most of them are primarily due to age related diseases. These include:
They are affecting Americans more than ever before.A disturbing fact is that the number of Americans with age related eye disorders and vision impairment is expected to double within the next three decades. The total in 2030 is expected in be 357 million.
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (AMD)
* 13 million people have signs of macular degeneration.
* 6,300,000 people are projected to develop AMD in 2030, compared to 1.8 in 2004
* 1,200,000 people are in the later stages of macular degeneration.
* 230,000 people are blind from macular degeneration.
* 5,500,000 people have vision obstructed by a cataract.
* 3,700,000 visits are made to doctors’ offices each year because of cataracts.
* 1,350,000 cataract extractions are performed each year.
* 400,000 new cases of cataracts develop each year.
* 30.1 million people are projected to have cataracts in 2020 as compared to 20.5 million in 2004.
RETINAL DISEASE (Diabetic Retinopathy)
* 16 million diabetics are prime targets for blinding disorders.
* 7 million diabetics suffer from diabetic retinopathy.
* 700,000 diabetics are presently at risk of blindness.
* 100,000 people have retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a family of progressive inherited diseases that causes deterioration of the retina and blindness.
* 65,000 diabetics each year develop proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the most sight-threatening stage.
* 25,000 new cases of blindness are caused annually by complications of diabetes.
* 60 million Americans are at risk for developing glaucoma.
* 3 million glaucoma-related office visits are made to doctors each year.
* 2 million people are visually impaired by glaucoma; 1,000,000 more have the disease but don’t know that they do.
* 120,000 people are presently blind from glaucoma.
* 5,500 people become blind each year from glaucoma.
* 3.3 million people are projected to have glaucoma in 2020 as compared to 2.2 in 2004.
Fortunately many peoples vision can be corrected with lenses but there are so many that can not. The most important thing to remember here is to have regular check ups and to always follow your doctor’s instructions. Your eyesight is very important.
Figures are from the “2004 Census & Visions Problems” and the Washington State of Ophthalmology.
Author:Sandi BakerVisual Innovations & Solutionshttp://visualinnovations.org
Tretinoin cream (Retin A) is a great way to reduce fine lines and wrinkles. It is the strongest possible form of retin-A cream and will make your skin look younger than it has in years!
Tretinoin was originally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat acne scarring. However, during the research process the cream’s anti-aging properties were discovered. Tretinoin has been studied more than any other anti-wrinkle cream on the market, so you can be sure it is safe and effective. The cream has been proven able to remove acne scars, dark spots and other signs of aging.
Many people are uncertain of anti-aging creams, especially when they hear the ingredients were “just discovered deep within the rainforest”. Sounds pretty vague. It is much easier to have faith in Tretinoin, as it is a form of vitamin A.
The chemical is simply the acid form of this common vitamin – no mystery ingredients here!
The way Tretinoin, Retin A cream works is even less mysterious. It changes the rate at which the top layer of skin sheds and replaces cells. As we age, our skin changes. There are noticeable changes that we see every time we look in the mirror, and there are more subtle changes that happen underneath the surface. Young skin sheds dead cells and regenerates them rapidly, but the process slows as we age. Tretnoin cream increases the rate at which our skin cells regenerate themselves, thereby decreasing the appearance of age spots and reducing wrinkles.
Tretinoin cream does not give instant results, but with a little patience clients will be pleased with what they see. In the first few weeks, clients will notice a slight irritation, burning or sensitivity where the cream is applied. These feelings should fade soon, and within six to nine weeks results will begin to appear. The skin will look smoother and have more vitality. After six months, clients will notice the full effects of the cream. Skin will have a more even tone, pigmentation variations will disappear, acne will become less visible and blackheads will be reduced. Overall, the skin will look healthier and younger. Tretinoin is not an overnight cure, but the problems were not caused quickly either.
This age-defying Retin A cream can be used as part of a normal beauty routine, and can work in conjunction with make-up. Tretinoin cream should be applied half an hour after the face is washed thoroughly. After the cream is applied, clients should allow it to penetrate the skin for about ten minutes, and then apply make-up as usual. Since the skin will be sensitive following application of the cream, make-up with SPF is the best choice to decrease irritation.
Many age-defying products claim to hold the secret of eternal youth. While no products can stop time, Tretinoin can be relied upon to slow the visible aging process. It has been studied more than any other age-defying product and has proven to reduce fine lines, wrinkles and uneven skin pigmentation. With a little patience, clients will be impressed by how effective Tretinion cream can be.
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Article by David Burn
Living a quality life while suffering the effects of low vision is challenging to all those who have experienced the condition. Whether your favourite past time of reading a good book or the morning newspaper has become demanding, work tasks are becoming increasingly difficult, or you feel that driving has become an unsafe adventure for yourself and other road users, there are simple and effective ways to alleviate and cure low vision conditions, allowing you to get on with living your life the way you want. Vision loss can be frustrating and traumatic. The term ‘low vision’ refers to a condition where an individual suffers from a significant visual impairment caused by a variety of factors which include macula degeneration, eye trauma, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment or hereditary and birth defects. As the symptoms of low vision are not universal, patients will often complain of numerous vision ailments and issues which must be further investigated by a qualified optometrist to ascertain the particular impairment that the individual is suffering from, as well as the best course of action to correct the impairment. However, there are certain symptoms that people should be wary of, and if experiencing any of these, should consult with an optometrist to halt the further decline of vision. These symptoms can include a blurring or loss of vision in the central vision zone, tunnel vision where the central vision is not impaired but the individuals peripheral vision is affected, sensitivity to bright light, night blindness, the seeing of shadows or dull patches, and experiences of reduced vision and colour perception. If you find that you are experiencing any of these symptoms an appointment with an optometrist should be made immediately. This is not only to address the vision issue at hand, but to prevent any further degradation of the condition of the eye. When these conditions are left untreated, the result is often permanent eye damage. An optometrist will take you through the process of an eye examination, which includes noting a detailed case history, finding out the exact ailments you are suffering from and recommending suitable and alternative solutions to address the specific vision issues. Any equipment, such as reading or bifocal glasses, contact lenses or other reading devices that may be recommended will be thoroughly explained in terms of their use, care and maintenance. If the optometrist?ascertains that there is a condition which cannot be suitably resolved with corrective eyewear or other low vision aids, suggestions will be made for other options, including medical treatment or corrective surgery. What is of most importance is to recognise any symptoms at an early stage and consult with an experienced optometrist immediately. If detected early, the return to a quality of life experienced with great vision is a simple appointment away.